"Economic geography and African development
Physical and economic geography both contribute to low levels of income in Africa. The small size of African countries and markets impedes growth through a number of mechanisms. The business environment is prone to monopoly and opportunistic behaviour. Cities are relatively small. Public goods (national and regional are undersupplied). The potential benefits of natural resources are not dispersed widely enough. Growth prospects require better use of natural resource revenues and the development of clusters of export oriented manufacturing in coastal economies."
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